Kimberlite pipe. Hot water tanks are an essential component of any residential or comme...

Jul 26, 2023 · A version of this story appeared in Sc

Buell Park Pipe, Arizona. July 2004 by Edgar B. Heylmun, PhD. One of the world’s largest kimberlite pipes is located on the Navajo Indian Reservation in northern Arizona. The pipe is larger than any diamond-bearing pipe in South Africa. It is 16 miles north of Window Rock, the capital of the Navajo Nation.Hinota kimberlite pipe falls within the study area, whereas Panna/Majhgawan kimberlite are falling outside. the extent of the study area due to the non-availability of. airborne AVIRIS-NG data.How do kimberlite pipes form? Kimberlite can be easy to identify if you know just what to look for. Kimberlite deposits are highly sought by geologists, miners, …Over thousands of years, the kimberlite pipe that reaches the Earth’s surface is eroded and weathered by wind, rain, rivers and streams.The eroded kimberlite bears rough diamonds, which are carried downstream. The first diamonds discovered in South Africa were from alluvial deposits.May 1, 2021 · The correlation coefficients between analytical signal grid of modelled kimberlite pipe and observed magnetic data were computed. Following this approach, kimberlite model with correlation coefficients exceeding 80% was selected. By matching the response of modelled kimberlite pipe with the magnetic anomalies, four pipe-like targets were located. Kimberlite eruptions leave behind a characteristic deep, carrot-shaped "pipe" of kimberlite rock, which often contains diamonds. Hundreds of these eruptions that occurred over the past 200 million ...Kimberlite occurs in the Earth's crust in vertical structures known as kimberlite pipes. Kimberlite pipes are the most important source of mined diamonds today.Mar 22, 2022 · Today, kimberlite is by far the most important source of naturally occurring diamonds, and deposits are found around the world. A 2018 photograph of the pit at the Victor Mine in Ontario, which ended operations in 2019 and is now in closure and rehabilitation. Reproduced with permission from Terry Kruger via Canadian Mining and Energy. Jan 25, 2021 · As mentioned, kimberlite pipes are believed to have been formed by deep-source volcanic eruptions. Jeffrey Post, a diamond expert at the Smithsonian, has described these eruptions as “quite... A xenolith of bimineralic eclogite from the Udachnaya kimberlite pipe provides a snapshot of interaction between mantle rocks and diamond-forming fluids/melts. The major-element composition of the eclogite is similar to that of N-MORB and/or oceanic gabbros, but its trace-element pattern shows the effects of mantle metasomatism, which …This resedimented volcaniclastic kimberlite becomes more massive, nonlayered kimberlite in the pipe and is often referred to as tuffisitic kimberlite breccia. This is the general kimberlite breccia present in many specimen collections. Hypabyssal kimberlite is a dense aphanitic (evenly fine-grained, non-breccia) rock occurring in the root zone.The discovery of a kimberlite pipe in South Africa in 1869 marks the beginning of the modern diamond industry. With it came the development of mining operations producing tens of millions of carats of rough diamonds each year – that includes a major discovery in Botswana in 1967, as well as other areas of Africa, Australia, Siberia and the Northwest Territories of Canada. ١ صفر ١٤٤٣ هـ ... Kimberlite from the Precambrian of South Africa (~4.2 centimeters across at its widest). Kimberlites and lamproites have significant ...These kimberlites are termed the Pandrea pipes and host diamonds that contain lower-mantle mineral inclusions (Kaminsky et al. 2009a, 2010). Lower-mantle inclusions were also identified in some diamond crystals from the earlier known pipe, Collier-4, from the Juina area (Kaminsky et al. 2009a; Bulanova et al. 2010). The Juina area is …KIMBERLITE PIPE in Soutb Africa bas been extensively excavated by open-cast mining for diamonds. Tbe kimberlite deposit itself bas been removed to a deptb of a few bundred meters, so tbat tbe form of tbe original deposit is revealed by tbe size and sbape of tbe cavi­ ty. Compared witb commoner types of volcano, kimberlite pipes areMay 6, 2023 · This report deals with the first mineralogical examination of secondary crystallized melt inclusions (CMIs) in healed cracks within olivine in a mantle peridotite xenolith from the V. Grib kimberlite pipe (Arkhangelsk diamondiferous province). In contrast to micro/nano-inclusions in diamonds, the studied CMIs are quite large (up to 50 µm), so that the mineral composition of the CMIs can be ... Crater kimberlite: Found within a volcanic crater, this type of kimberlite is a breccia or fragmented rock that contains country rock, crystals, and volcanic ash. Diatreme kimberlite: This kind creates a deep cylindrical or funnel-shaped pipe in the earth called a diatreme, and is made up of fragmented country rock and volcanic debris.Haggerty has confirmed the presence of the plant at another kimberlite pipe 50 kilometers to the southeast, but it does not seem to grow elsewhere. Plants signaling that something of interest lays ...Sep 1, 2008 · Kimberlite pipe formation modelsThe processes that led to the formation of kimberlite pipes are still being debated. This is the consequence of the fact that no modern kimberlite eruption has been witnessed, and a complete volcanic edifice has not been preserved in the geological record. Kimberlite eruptions start near the cratonic roots, at least 75 miles underground, and race upward at tens of feet per second — a fiery fury driven by an abundance of carbon dioxide and water ...Hot water tanks are an essential component of any residential or commercial building, providing a steady supply of hot water for various purposes. To ensure the proper functioning of a hot water tank, it’s important to have a clear understa...When the kimberlite or lamproite reaches the surface, the sudden release of magmatic gas and interaction with groundwater causes explosions, producing pipe-shaped diatremes filled with fragmented kimberlite and country rock. Most pipes have a small surface area, usually 50–500 m in diameter, but occur in clusters. Kimberlite is soft and ...A single kimberlite pipe can combine fluid-devoid and fluid-rich magma pulses, which suggests either segregation of propagating kimberlite magmas between a fluid-dominated magma front and fluid ...Location map of kimberlite pipes, clusters and fields in North America, with the mid-Cretaceous kimberlite corridor demarcated by white-dashed lines. The eastern (leading) edge of Farallon slab in central North America at 100 and 90 Ma (at 403 km depth) are shown as thick and thin black-dashed line, respectively [after Spasojevic et al., 2009]. Hot water tank piping systems play a crucial role in delivering hot water efficiently and safely throughout residential and commercial buildings. Copper piping systems have been widely used in plumbing for many years due to their durability...Köppen climate type: Located off Kentucky route 409. Dark blue-green kimberlite outcrops near Ison Creek (Clem Ison's farm). Massive outcrops, boulders, and loose rock are easy to collect. Decomposed peridotite can be found around old mining area and in weathered areas. Loose (but highly fractured) pyrope crystals can be found in some areas.Geophysical methods are particularly useful in diamond exploration. They tend to work well because kimberlite pipes, the diamond hosting rock, generally have properties that are different from the surrounding rock. In addition, the data provide most of the guidance on where to position drillholes. On a property-wide scale airborne surveys …Figure 12. Stage I of a kimberlite eruption is overpressured, and eruption at this stage experiences the highest velocities. Stage II is underpressured, and during this stage significant wallrock erosion occurs. Stage III …Jan 29, 2023 · The formation of a kimberlite pipe starts with the upward movement of a dense and hot mass of molten rock, or magma, from the mantle. As the magma rises, it encounters the Earth’s crust and begins to cool, solidifying into a volcanic pipe. The solidifying magma also traps a variety of minerals and rocks from the mantle, including diamonds ... Zarnitsa kimberlite pipe in Central Yakutia contains pyrope garnets with Cr 2 O 3 ranging from 9 to 19.3 wt% derived from the asthenospheric mantle. They show mostly S-shaped, inflected rare earth element (REE) patterns for dunitic and harzburgitic, lherzolitic and harzburgitic varieties and all are rich in high field strength elements (HFSE ...kimberlite pipe model' is a composite mode. l (Kjarsgaard, 2003; Gurney et al. 2005), as illustrated in Figure 5. The volcanic. edifice at Kasama, Mali, is 4 m high; in the Hawthorne (1975 ...Learn if loud pipes really save lives at HowStuffWorks. Advertisement "Loud pipes save lives." It's something motorcyclists like to say, a lot, in defense of the engine and exhaust noise generated by their large or modified bikes. Some find...Sobolev, N. V. et al. Paragenesis and complex zoning of olivine macrocrysts from unaltered kimberlite of the Udachnaya-East pipe, Yakutia: Relationship with the kimberlite formation conditions and ...Jul 26, 2023 · A version of this story appeared in Science, Vol 381, Issue 6656. Forged under extreme temperatures and pressures more than 150 kilometers down in the mantle, diamonds ride rockets to reach Earth’s surface: narrow pipes of magma called kimberlite that can erupt at the speed of sound. Strangely, most kimberlite pipes are found in the quiet ... Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Special Publications Series, Volume 1.Since the first edition was published in 1979, the Third International Kimberlite Conference was held in Clermont-Ferrand in 1982. Nevertheless, several of the problems addressed by papers in the first edition of this publication are still valid and remain unanswered today. For example, we still do ...Aug 4, 2011 · Kimberlite pipe shown in dark blue. Diamond habitat shown by dark blue outlined rhombi. Blue question marks indicate area of Proterozoic crust that was accreted to the Wyoming Craton along the Cheyenne Belt about 1.77 billion years ago. The surface areas of kimberlite pipes are small, generally less than 1 sq km. In Africa and Australia, there may be crater-like shallow surface depressions called maars. They indicate some kimberlites. Younger African maars may be circled by a low ring of volcanic ejecta (tuff) of kimberlite composition.May 18, 2022 · In contrast, in the Kimberley area of the South African highveld plateau, it is postulated that the Group 1 kimberlite pipes (~90–100 Ma) have experienced ~850 m of erosion, while the original surface associated with the older Group II (~120 Ma) pipes has been lowered by ~1250 m of erosion (Hanson et al. 2009). In all cases, these southern ... Recently, a kimberlite pipe, here named the Lake Ellen kimberlite, has been found in Iron County, Michigan. That find suggests the possibility that drift diamonds in Wisconsin have come from a more local source--kimberlites in northern Michigan and Wisconsin. The Lake Ellen kimberlite is very poorly exposed, but a strong positive magnetic ...Köppen climate type: Located off Kentucky route 409. Dark blue-green kimberlite outcrops near Ison Creek (Clem Ison's farm). Massive outcrops, boulders, and loose rock are easy to collect. Decomposed peridotite can be found around old mining area and in weathered areas. Loose (but highly fractured) pyrope crystals can be found in some areas.K2 is a steep-sided, sub-circular pipe which flares slightly with depth and is dominantly infilled by massive coherent kimberlite. The textural characteristics of the infill preserved in K2 ...Though kimberlite pipes are found around the world, P. candelabrum is only found in West Africa, including in Liberia, where Stephen Haggerty, a professor of geophysics at Florida International ...Finally, from a volcanologic standpoint, diatremes are funnel-shaped breccia pipes that extend to as much as 2,500m in depth, and are thought to form1 by '' ...The project consists of eight kimberlite pipes and dikes on a property of 10,743 hectares. The current focus of the project is the Q1-4 kimberlite pipe with a surface exposure of 12.5 hectares - the largest in the eastern Canadian Arctic. An origin from the same kimberlite pipe, however, is unlikely given the diversity in initial Sr, Nd, Hf and Pb isotope ratios (87 Sr/ 86 Sr 0.7042−0.7054, ...The Murowa kimberlite field includes three kimberlite pipes and multiple kimberlite dykes that have been emplaced into the Archaen Chibi granite batholith north of the Limpopo Belt in south-central Zimbabwe (Fig. 1a, b). The exploration history, regional geology, and general character of the volcaniclastic kimberlite rocks, coherent …Zarnitsa kimberlite pipe in Central Yakutia contains pyrope garnets with Cr 2 O 3 ranging from 9 to 19.3 wt% derived from the asthenospheric mantle. They show mostly S-shaped, inflected rare earth element (REE) patterns for dunitic and harzburgitic, lherzolitic and harzburgitic varieties and all are rich in high field strength elements (HFSE ...Research on the kimberlites is part of a larger Survey study of the geology of the Manhattan quadrangle, a roughly 7,200-square-mile area in north-central Kansas. That study involves mapping the area’s bedrock geology, analyzing the deep subsurface, and looking at geologic hazards such as landslides. Generalized diagram of a kimberlite pipe.Apr 30, 2018 · Specifically, the kimberlite pipes that most likely to contain diamonds occur in ancient cratons, the oldest and most geologically stable portions of continents. While not all kimberlite pipes contain diamonds, most diamonds occur in association with kimberlite pipes. Kimberlite is an ultrabasic igneous rock that contains at least 35 percent ... Location map of kimberlite pipes, clusters and fields in North America, with the mid-Cretaceous kimberlite corridor demarcated by white-dashed lines. The eastern (leading) edge of Farallon slab in central North America at 100 and 90 Ma (at 403 km depth) are shown as thick and thin black-dashed line, respectively [after Spasojevic et al., 2009 ...The Letšeng-la-Terae kimberlite (Lesotho), famous for its large high-value diamonds, has five distinct phases that are mined in a Main and a Satellite pipe. These diatreme phases are heavily altered but parts of a directly adjacent kimberlite blow are exceptionally fresh. The blow groundmass consists of preserved primary olivine with …Kimberlite pipes are the most likely place to find diamonds. They are formed deep in the Earth’s mantle and are brought to the surface by volcanic eruptions. These rocks have a diverse range of textures, and the Kimberley kimberlite pipe is an excellent example. Although diamonds found in the Kimberley pipe are among the most valuable …Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Special Publications Series, Volume 1.Since the first edition was published in 1979, the Third International Kimberlite Conference was held in Clermont-Ferrand in 1982. Nevertheless, several of the problems addressed by papers in the first edition of this publication are still valid and remain unanswered today. For example, we still do ...Kimberlites are the most important source of primary diamonds. Many kimberlite pipes also produce rich alluvial or eluvial diamond placer deposits. About 6.400 kimberlite pipes have been discovered in the world, of those about 900 have been classified as diamondiferous, and of those just over 30 have been economic enough to diamond mine.Since the kimberlite pipes were initially covered by Lac de Gras, it was necessary to first construct dikes around the pipes to prevent water from flooding the open pits and underground mine workings. The A21 kimberlite pipe is also under the lake—its location is indicated by the blue dot. Photo courtesy of Diavik Diamond Mine.Kimberlite magma can rise toward the surface at speeds estimated at up to 400 meters (1,200 feet) per second, ripping up more and more pieces from the surrounding rock, which gives the kimberlite its characteristic texture (fig. 3). Figure 2--Generalized diagram of a kimberlite pipe. Figure 3--Polished kimberlite core sample.A moderately conductive thin overburden layer overlies the whole model. This model features most of the conductive kimberlite pipes known in Angola. The forward calculations are performed with the 3D CSIRO Samair Code (Raiche et al., 2007) using various model diameters of the kimberlite pipes ranging from 100 m to 500 m.Kimberlite forms in vertical structures in the earth's crust known as kimberlite pipes. The mineral olivine—an olive-green to brown mineral made up of magnesium, iron, and silica—is the main constituent of kimberlite. Kimberlite is found in only a small portion of Riley and Marshall counties near Tuttle Creek Lake. The kimberlite pipes of the WKF offer a wide scope for research and in recent times attracted geologists and mantle petrologists for carrying out extensive research (Chalapathi Rao, Giri, Sharma, & Pandey, 2020). As research is progressing, with the enhanced knowledge, new opinions on their petrological taxonomy are changing. …The Tokapal kimberlite is a saucer-shaped volcanic sheet, with a diameter of ∼2.5 km, occurring in the western part of the Mesoproterozoic platformal sequence of the Indrāvati Basin on the Bastar craton of central India (Fig. 1 B).Together with its NE exposure at Bejripadar, which constitutes its satellite body, it is one of the world's largest (>550 ha) …Aug 3, 2016 · This means that total kimberlite occurrences are tens of thousands of hectares of land-mass, compared to 13 billion hectares of land on the planet, of which 7% is located within Archean cratons . Given that less than 1% of kimberlites will yield an economically-viable diamond deposit, finding a viable diamond mine is a daunting task. This is mainly due to the fact that kimberlite pipes have moderate to strong magnetization, with susceptibilities ranging from 1 to. 80 × 10-3 SI units (Power ...Though kimberlite pipes are found around the world, P. candelabrum is only found in West Africa, including in Liberia, where Stephen Haggerty, a professor of geophysics at Florida International...It's a rare plant identified as Pandanus candelabrum that seems to grow only on top of volcanic columns of kimberlite, a material that sometimes contains diamonds. Kimberlite pipes are columns of ...High-density polyethylene pipes (commonly referred to as HDPE pipes) are made from a flexible plastic material. These pipes has various uses, and costs can range depending on how much piping is needed.Storm Mountain Diamonds (SMD) operates a kimberlite diamond mine at Kao, Lesotho which is a subsidiary of Namakwa Diamonds. Email: [email protected] Tel: (+266) 525 55555 STORM ... The kimberlite pipe is the largest in Lesotho and the fourth largest in Southern Africa.Kimberlite pipes were first found near Kimberley in South Africa, but since then they have been found on most continents. Of course, as has been noted, not all kimberlite pipes are created equal ...The Tokapal kimberlite is a saucer-shaped volcanic sheet, with a diameter of ∼2.5 km, occurring in the western part of the Mesoproterozoic platformal sequence of the Indrāvati Basin on the Bastar craton of central India (Fig. 1 B).Together with its NE exposure at Bejripadar, which constitutes its satellite body, it is one of the world's largest (>550 ha) …The surface areas of kimberlite pipes are small, generally less than 1 sq km. In Africa and Australia, there may be crater-like shallow surface depressions called maars. They indicate some kimberlites. Younger African maars may be circled by a low ring of volcanic ejecta (tuff) of kimberlite composition.The kimberlite pipes contain significant magnetic mineralisation and hence can produce detectable anomalies, which are equivalent to equidimensional bodies. In the Baghain block of PDB, a prominent anomaly on the eastern and a bipolar anomaly on the western side can be depicted in the Bouguer anomaly map (Fig. 2 ).Kimberlite is a type of igneous rock that is ultramafic and ultrapotassic. Its mineral content usually includes olivine, phlogopite, pyroxene, and garnet, accompanied by a variety of trace minerals. Kimberlite occurs in the Earth 's crust in vertical structures known as kimberlite pipes. These pipes are the most important source of mined ... Kimberlite forms in vertical structures in the earth's crust known as kimberlite pipes. The mineral olivine—an olive-green to brown mineral made up of magnesium, iron, and silica—is the main constituent of kimberlite. Kimberlite is found in only a small portion of Riley and Marshall counties near Tuttle Creek Lake.Sep 15, 2023 · Kimberlite pipes are relatively rare geological formations. Although scientists aren’t sure how the magma pipes travel, they know the general process. This is how kimberlite pipes have formed over millions of years: Molten rock from the mantle moves upward towards the surface of the earth at a high rate of speed. Another steep-walled pipe is the 25 ha Tier 1 Udachnaya (Russia) diamond mine, a kimberlite twin pipe (Kostrovitsky et al. 2105). Plan and cross section views of the Udachnaya East and West pipes are shown in Figure 10. The 32 ha Tier 1 Cullinan (South Africa) diamond mine is another kimberlite twin pipe, with multiple discrete kimberlite …The magnetic signature of most kimberlite pipes is, at high magnetic latitudes, a circular anomaly. At lower magnetic latitudes, it becomes asymmetric; and at the magnetic equator, the anomaly is ...Sep 15, 2023 · Kimberlite pipes are relatively rare geological formations. Although scientists aren’t sure how the magma pipes travel, they know the general process. This is how kimberlite pipes have formed over millions of years: Molten rock from the mantle moves upward towards the surface of the earth at a high rate of speed. 1 Introduction. Significant variations in the physical properties of rocks of which kimberlite pipes and their enclosing environments consist make it difficult to …Kimberlite Pipe Models: Significance for Exploration. January 2007. Authors: Bruce A. Kjarsgaard. Government of Canada. Abstract and Figures. Kimberlite bodies …Kimberlites, the dominant source of diamonds worldwide, are a variety of rare, small-volume, potassic and volatile-rich ultramafic rocks that originate from either the deep lithosphere or sub-lithospheric mantle (Mitchell, 1986, Mitchell, 1995, Woolley et al., 1996, Giuliani and Pearson, 2019).It is widely accepted that the most likely settings for …The mine consists of six kimberlite pipes of which two pipes, Arkhangelskaya and Karpinskogo-1, are currently being developed. The Arkhangelskaya pipe was discovered in 1980 and open-pit mining using conventional truck and shovel methods commenced in 2005. The Karpinskogo-1 pipe is located approximately 2km …Kimberlite is an igneous rock that major source of diamonds. Kimberlite is a variety of peridotite . It is rich in mica minerals content and often in form of crystals of phlogopite. Other containt abundant minerals are chrome-diopside, olivine, and chromium- and pyrope-rich garnet . Kimberlite is typically found in pipes - structures with ...Kimberlite pipes are only found on the cratons of earth’s continents. A craton is the core or nucleus of a continent, and it represents the thickest and most stable portion of the continental mass. But most importantly, a craton represents a thick layer of silica-rich rock that extends deep into the earth.may be referred to as hypabyssal-facies kimberlite since it is apparent that it consolidated at depth. In other instances, highly gas-charged kimberlite ascending along fractures broke through explosively to the surface, the explosion conduit then being enlarged and infilled by fluidized kimberlite to form a kimberlite diatreme or pipe (Dawson ...The kimberlite field comprises an eastern and a western group consisting of 16 and 17 kimberlites, respectively. The eastern group was discovered by TCL in 1908 (Studt 1910) whilst the western group was only found in 1913 by Poulson (Fieremans 1953).The majority of the kimberlites are pipes and were originally evaluated by Société …The Pipe-15 kimberlite: A new addition to the Wajrakarur cluster of the Wajrakarur kimberlite field, Eastern Dharwar craton, Southern India. Journal of the Geological Society of India, Vol. 86, Issue. 1, p. 71.Kimberlite pipes are the world’s primary source of diamonds, and they are plentiful in Africa. Kimberlites are volcanic rocks rich in magnesium, potassium, and other elements necessary for diamond formation. When magma from deep within the Earth rises up through the crust and erupts on the surface, these pipes form.A moderately conductive thin overburden layer overlies the whole model. This model features most of the conductive kimberlite pipes known in Angola. The forward calculations are performed with the 3D CSIRO Samair Code (Raiche et al., 2007) using various model diameters of the kimberlite pipes ranging from 100 m to 500 m.Crater kimberlite: Found within a volcanic crater, this type of kimberlite is a breccia or fragmented rock that contains country rock, crystals, and volcanic ash. Diatreme kimberlite: This kind creates a deep cylindrical or funnel-shaped pipe in the earth called a diatreme, and is made up of fragmented country rock and volcanic debris.Wehrlitic garnets in diamonds and kimberlite-hosted xenoliths 9,25 ... constraints from whole-rock and mineral chemical composition of deformed peridotite xenoliths from kimberlite pipe Udachnaya.Both kimberlite pits are mined using only excavators, without blasting. A fleet of 25 hauling trucks with 35 to 90 metric ton capacity carry the kimberlite ore from each pipe to separate stockpiles. On average, 14 million cubic tons of rock are mined per year, of which only 2 million cubic tons are kimberlite.We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us.Water expands when it freezes, and you can use that property to your benefit if you're trying to get the dents out of thin metal pipes or dented metal containers, or in the case of this particular Instructable, a brass instrument. Water exp.... This resedimented volcaniclastic kimberlite becomes moreKimberlites, the dominant source of diamonds worldwide, are a variet Kimberlite is a peculiar igneous rock that also exhibits strong magnetism. Due to the trace mineral, Magnetite, that is found inside this heavy, diverse looking rock, it has very distinctive magnetic and electromagnetic signatures. As kimberlite pipes erode, the kimberlite and the surrounding rocks are attacked by weathering. Both kimberlite pits are mined using only excavators, without blasting. A fleet of 25 hauling trucks with 35 to 90 metric ton capacity carry the kimberlite ore from each pipe to separate stockpiles. On average, 14 million cubic tons of rock are mined per year, of which only 2 million cubic tons are kimberlite. Dec 6, 2022 · Diamonds, on the other hand, can be form The magma eventually cooled inside these kimberlite pipes, leaving behind conical veins of kimberlite rock that contain diamonds. Kimberlite is a bluish rock that diamond miners look for when seeking out new diamond deposits. The surface area of diamond-bearing kimberlite pipes ranges from 2 to 146 hectares (5 to 361 acres).This is mainly due to the fact that kimberlite pipes have moderate to strong magnetization, with susceptibilities ranging from 1 to. 80 × 10-3 SI units (Power ... The three main factors controlling these responses are the origin...

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